Carbon Black is virtually pure elemental carbon in the form of colloidal particles that are produced by incomplete combustion or thermal decomposition of gaseous or liquid hydrocarbons under controlled conditions.
Its physical appearance is that of a black, finely divided pellet or powder.
Carbon black is also in the top 50 industrial chemicals manufactured worldwide, based on annual tonnage. Approximately 90% of carbon black is used in rubber applications, 9% as a pigment, and the remaining 1% as an essential ingredient in hundreds of diverse applications.
How is Carbon Black Produced?
These processes produce nearly all of the world’s carbon blacks, with the furnace black process being the most common.
The furnace black process uses heavy aromatic oils as feedstock. The production furnace uses a closed reactor to atomize the feedstock oil under carefully controlled conditions (primarily temperature and pressure). The primary feedstock is introduced into a hot gas stream (achieved by burning a secondary feedstock, e.g., natural gas or oil) where it vaporizes and then pyrolysis in the vapor phase to form microscopic carbon particles. In most furnace reactors, the reaction rate is controlled by steam or water sprays. The carbon black produced is conveyed through the reactor, cooled, and collected in bag filters in a continuous process. Residual gas, or tail gas, from a furnace reactor includes a variety of gases such as carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Most furnace black plants use a portion of this residual gas to produce heat, steam, or electric power.
The thermal black process uses natural gas, consisting primarily of methane or heavy aromatic oils, as feedstock material. The process uses a pair of furnaces that alternate approximately every five minutes between preheating and carbon black production. The natural gas is injected into the hot refractory lined furnace, and, in the absence of air, the heat from the refractory material decomposes the natural gas into carbon black and hydrogen. The aerosol material stream is quenched with water sprays and filtered in a bag house. The exiting carbon black may be further processed to remove impurities, pelletized, screened, and then packaged for shipment. The hydrogen off-gas is burned in air to preheat the second furnace.
What is Carbon Black used for?
Application of Carbon Black in Tires
Carbon black is used to improve the processing, strength and durability important to tire manufacturing and tire performance (most notably safety), increasing tire life and fuel economy.
Application of Carbon Black in Plastics
Carbon black provides color, UV protection and conductivity – power cable shielding or electrostatic dissipation – to plastics.
Application of Carbon Black in Food Contact Grades
Specific carbon black grades comply with stringent purity requirements for many regulated industrial or consumer plastic applications.
Application of Carbon Black in Batteries
Carbon black improves electrochemical conductivity and charging characteristics in lead-acid, modern stop-start, and hybrid batteries – improving overall battery efficiency.
Application of Carbon Black in High Performance Coatings
Carbon black provides jetness for coatings, degradation protection from UV radiation and conductivity for coatings.
Application of Carbon Black in Rubber Goods
Hoses, belts, gaskets – carbon black is used to enhance mechanical properties, anti-vibration and conductivity of rubber goods.
Application of Carbon Black in Pipe
Carbon black serves to protect pipes from mechanical degradation caused by harmful UV radiation.
Application of Carbon Black in Agricultural Irrigation, Mulch Films and Greenhouse Coverings
Carbon black enables more efficient and better farming through water management for irrigation, retention and UV protection.
Application of Carbon Black in Automotive Skin Contact
Low PAH carbon black provide excellent UV protection for internal automotive components designed to come into contact with skin (steering wheel, gear shift, arm rests, etc.)
Application of Carbon Black in Wire and Cable
Carbon black extends cable life and efficiency by creating exceptionally smooth and conductive insulation, conductor shield and UV resistance.
Application of Carbon Black in Toner and Printing Inks
Carbon black provides pigmentation that enhances color and undertone in various ink applications.
What is Carbon Black packaging?
Best Packing of Carbon Black would be 25 kg PP bags and for keeping away from injuries when transporting its better putting 25 kg bags in Jumbo bags.
Safety Tips for Transport of Carbon Black
Carbon black should be stored in a clean, dry, uncontaminated area away from exposure to high temperatures, open flame sources and strong oxidizers (e.g., chlorates, bromates, and nitrates). Since carbon black will adsorb moisture and chemical vapors, it should be stored in closed containers.
Carbon black has been tested in accordance with the U.N. method, Self-Heating Solids, and found to be “Not a self-heating substance” In addition, carbon black has been tested in accordance with the U.N. method, Readily Combustible Solids, and found to be “Not a readily combustible solid” under current U.N. Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods.
Complications of Contact with carbon black
Inhalation of carbon black can cause cough, phlegm, tiredness, chest pain, and headache. Dermal, mucosal, or inhalation exposure can cause irritation.